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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Mar 15, 2017 8:58 am 
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The Polish “Schindlers”

You’ve probably heard of Oskar Schindler, the German industrialist who saved the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust. Here’s a story you probably haven’t heard—about two men who pulled off a similar miracle in Poland.

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Oskar Schindler

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Liam Neeson as Oskar Schindler

Dr. Eugene Lazowski was a young Red Cross physician living in the village of Rozwadow during the Nazi occupation of Poland in World War II. Life in Poland under German occupation was a time of unimaginable suffering and horror. By the time the Soviet Union’s Red Army finally drove the Germans out in 1945, one fifth of the entire Polish population had been murdered, including 3 million of Poland’s 3.4 million Jews, and 3 million Polish Gentiles. Millions more Poles were arrested and put to work in forced labor camps, including 1.6 million who were sent to camps in Germany.

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Dr. Eugene Lazowski

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Battle of Poland

As a physician, Lazowski did what he could to alleviate the suffering of his countrymen. A member of the Polish resistance, he provided medical care and supplies to resistance fighters hiding in the forests around Rozwadow.

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Lazowski’s biggest opportunity to provide assistance came in 1942 when a fellow physician, Dr. Stanislaw Matulewicz, told him that he’d discovered a way to make healthy patients test positive for the deadly disease typhus. (Sadly, I was unable to get any background information on Dr. Matulewicz; no Wikipedia page and no personal facts. What I was able to find – besides his image - were just references to Dr. Lasowski and his fake epidemic. – H)

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Dr. Stanislaw Matulewicz

The Germans were terrified of typhus, which was spread by body lice. The disease killed as many as one in every four people who contracted it, and under battlefield conditions of close quarters and poor hygiene, it spread quickly from one soldier to another. A typhus epidemic could mean the difference between victory and defeat.

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To prevent it, the Nazis required physicians in German-occupied Europe to take blood samples from any patient they suspected of having typhus, and send the samples to German labs for analysis. What Matulewicz had discovered was that if he injected some of the dead (and therefore harmless) typhus cells into a patient before taking the blood sample, the sample would test positive for typhus even though the patient did not have the disease. When he told Lazowski about his discovery, Lazowski suggested creating a fake typhus epidemic in Rozwadow by injecting villagers with dead typhus cells. The Germans, he hoped, would quarantine the villagers in their homes and leave them alone.

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From then on, every time Lazowski or Matulewicz treated non-Jewish patients, the doctors injected them with the dead typhus virus without telling them what they were doing or why. (Since Jews risked being shot if they tested positive for typhus, they were not injected with the virus.) To avoid attracting suspicion, rather than take blood samples from all the patients they injected, the doctors referred some patients to other physicians in the area to have their blood drawn there. That way, every doctor in the area submitted samples that tested positive for typhus, not just Lazowski and Matulewicz. The two men then paced their injections, referrals, and blood sample submissions to mimic the spread of a real typhus epidemic.

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Within weeks, the Germans began posting signs around Rozwadow that warned, “Fleckfieber!” (“Typhus!”). As time passed, the “epidemic” spread to nearby communities—about a dozen villages in all. These were home to some 8,000 Polish Gentiles and an unknown number of Jews in hiding. (By then, most of the Jewish population of Rozwadow had been deported to labor camps or death camps.) All of the villages fell under the quarantine, and German soldiers began to avoid them entirely, giving the residents their first feeling of safety, however fragile, since the Nazi invasion of Poland in September 1939.

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The danger grew as time passed and nobody died; some of the villagers even began to suspect that something was afoot. Most kept quiet, though, either for their own personal safety or (if they guessed who was behind the ruse) to protect Lazowski and Matulewicz. But every Polish community had its German collaborators, and when those living in and around Rozwadow passed their suspicions on to the Germans, a team of Nazi physicians was dispatched to Rozwadow to investigate.

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Lazowski was ready. He greeted the physicians on the outskirts of Rozwadow with a feast of sausages, vodka—both hard to come by during the war—and musical entertainment. Just as Lazowski hoped, the senior doctors stayed to enjoy the party, dispatching their two young subordinates to perform the unpleasant and (as far as they knew) dangerous task of entering the quarantine area to examine infected villagers to see if they really had typhus. The patients waiting to be examined were the oldest and sickest-looking people that Lazowski could find, and he put them up in the most ramshackle, lice-ridden huts in the village.

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By early 1945, however, when the war was clearly lost and Rozwadow was about to be overrun by the Red Army, the Germans were more interested in punishing people who’d aided the Polish resistance than they were in containing the typhus epidemic. Both Lazowski and Matulewicz survived the war. In the 1990s, Lazowski and Matulewicz wrote a memoir called Private War. Published in Poland, it told their story to their countrymen for the first time and was a best-seller.

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In 2000, the two men, now well into their eighties, made their first trip back to Rozwadow since the end of the war. They received a warm welcome from the villagers, including many old enough to remember being treated by the physicians. Some villagers still did not realize the full extent of the ruse that the doctors had played on the Nazis during the war. When one man approached Lazowski and thanked him effusively for the “miracle” of curing his father’s typhus in only five days, all Lazowski could do was smile. “It was not real typhus,” he said. “It was my typhus.”

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Dr. Lazowski died in 2006 in Eugene, Oregon, where he had been living with his daughter.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Mar 15, 2017 11:45 am 
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Fascinating story! The resources of the human mind, both for depravity and to overcome depravity, amaze me.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Mar 15, 2017 12:08 pm 
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tmjbp wrote:
Fascinating story! The resources of the human mind, both for depravity and to overcome depravity, amaze me.


Master Race ... indeed. :raisedeyebrow:

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Mar 16, 2017 9:33 am 
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What Were Some Of The Insulting Nicknames For The Kings Of Europe?

I suspect that some nicknames could have been used without offense, for example, Richard the Lion-Hearted, Vladimir the Saint, Charles the Wise, or Henry the Lion.

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Henry The Lion – my favorite, for sure

However, I equally suspect that the really insulting nicknames could have gotten you killed—do you think Ivan would’ve liked being called “the Terrible”? People used them behind the king’s back or, more often, when he was safely dead.

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Here are some of my favorite nicknames that have been permanently affixed in the history books: Louis the Fat (Louis VI, France, 1108-1137), Louis the Quarrelsome (Louis X, France, 1314-1316), Pepin the Short (Pepin, England, 741-768), Charles the Bald (Charles II, France, 840-877), Charles the Fat (Charles II, France, 884-887), Charles the Simple (Charles III, France, 898-922), Henry the Fowler (Henry I, France, 919-936), Louis the Indolent (Louis V, France, 986-987), Philip the Amorous (Philip I, France, 1060-1108), and a schizophrenic pairing: Charles the Mad and Charles the Well-Beloved, both referring to Charles VI (France, 1380-1422).

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Louis The Fat

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Pepin “Pipin” The Short

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Charles The Bald

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Henry The Fowler – least favorite

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Charles The Mad

Finally, here’s a mysterious one: John the Posthumous (John I, France, 1316). He was named that because he was born after the death of his father (Louis the Quarrelsome) and was proclaimed king as soon as he emerged from the womb.

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John The Posthumous

The infant king ruled for five days before he himself died—murdered, some say, by his crown-seeking uncle, Philip the Tall (Philip V, France, 1316-1322).

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Philip The Tall

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Post Posted: Mar 17, 2017 8:36 am 
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What Were The First Spiders Sent Into Space And Can Spiders Spin Webs In Zero Gravity In Space?

On July, 28, 1973, two spiders named Arabella and Anita, were launched toward Skylab and fame.

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Their mission was to spin webs in outer space. They boarded Skylab 3 with three NASA astronauts.

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Arabella was put to work immediately.

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Arabella

The spiders produced rather sloppy webs at first, but they adapted quickly. It took her about 2 days in space before she could spin normally.

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Sloppy at first

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Better web over time

Anita was given a break for the first few days, after which she came out spinning perfectly normal webs.

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The primary investigators of the experiment were high school students from across the United States who participated in several other Skylab missions.

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Post Posted: Mar 18, 2017 8:44 am 
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Why Is An Hour of Sleep Before Midnight Worth Two Hours of Sleep After Midnight?

Well, for one thing, it’s not true that an hour of sleep before midnight is worth two hours of sleep after midnight.

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And for another, sleep needs are much more complicated than that.

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The hour of rising is probably much more important in keeping sleep cycles normal.

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Individuals go through a series of periods of rapid-eye-movement, or REM, sleep, and non-REM sleep, and both kinds are needed.

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There is no evidence that you need more of one than the other, but you do get most of the non-REM sleep in the first three to four hours of sleep and most of the REM sleep after that.

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The amounts of different kinds of sleep are determined by when, within a sleep cycle, a person goes to bed and gets up.

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A human being’s sleep cycles are also regulated by the amount of sleep needed over a period of several days.

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Thus, sleep is regulated both by a system based on “need” for sleep and a system designed to keep the body’s time in synchrony with the time of day, so that others are awake at the same time.

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This system allows animal life to be coordinated with the environment, food sources and fellow animals.

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The second half of the night is crucially important in setting the rhythm of sleep, and getting up in the morning is the most important act of the day to make sure our biological clocks keep the right time.

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It resets the clock.

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In Depth

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Post Posted: Mar 19, 2017 8:35 am 
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Why Did Paul Revere Have To Borrow A Horse For His Famous Midnight Ride During The American Revolution?

There is no record of American silversmith and patriot Paul Revere owning a horse during the American Revolution, although many argue he probably did.

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What did happen was this: He was rowed across the Charles River to Charleston, just north of Boston, to begin the ride, so naturally he had no horse with him.

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Paul Revere crossing the Charles River

The horse he used for his ride was a loaner from Samuel Larkin, a staunch patriot sympathizer.

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Samuel Larkin

According to the Larkin family geneaology, published over 150 years after the fact in 1930, Brown Beauty was the horse Paul used.

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Whether this version is accurate or not, we do know that the horse Revere rode was never returned to its rightful owner, it was captured by the British and used to replace a British sergeant’s tired horse.

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Representative image

Paul Revere was celebrated after his death for his role as a messenger on horseback just before the battles of Lexington and Concord.

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His famous “Midnight Ride” occurred on the night of April 18, 1775, when he and William Dawes were instructed by Dr. Joseph Warren to ride from Boston to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the movements of the British Army, which was about to move toward Lexington to arrest them both.

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Post Posted: Mar 20, 2017 8:33 am 
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Is The Story Of Marco Polo Only A Legend?

Many of the tales told about medieval traveler Marco Polo were just legends. But Marco Polo did live, and he stands along with Columbus and Magellan as one of the most important explorers in history.

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Marco Polo came from a family of traders in Venice, Italy. When Marco was still a boy, his father met travelers in Central Asia who brought him to meet Kublai Khan, the great leader of China. The Khan asked Polo to return to Europe and bring teachers and priests back to China.

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A few years later, Polo, his son Marco, and Marco’s uncle, left for the Far East. In 1275, they reached the court of Kublai Khan. They remained there for many years, exploring parts of the East that even the Khan didn’t know about, before returning to Venice in 1295.

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A few years later, Marco Polo was captured by enemies during a naval battle and put in prison. While there, he wrote a book about his journeys, describing the many strange lands he had seen.

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Marco Polo was the first European to describe and locate dozens of lands in the East and in Africa. His book was the basis of one of the first accurate maps of Asia, and was read by Christopher Columbus before he sailed for America.

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Trade routes in blue, silk road in red

He died in Venice in 1324 and was buried in San Lorenzo. If, as the story goes, Marco Polo was buried at San Lorenzo, his tomb was lost when the church was rebuilt. The church is not accessible and has not been for some time.

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Post Posted: Mar 21, 2017 8:42 am 
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NASA Scientists Discover 7 Earth-like Planets Orbiting Nearby Star

Not just one, but seven Earth-size planets that could potentially harbor life have been identified orbiting a tiny star not too far away, offering the first realistic opportunity to search for signs of alien life outside the solar system.

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The planets orbit a dwarf star named TRAPPIST-1, about 40 light-years, or 235 trillion miles, from Earth. That is quite close in cosmic terms, and by happy accident, the orientation of the orbits of the seven planets allows them to be studied in great detail.

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One or more of the exoplanets in this new system could be at the right temperature to be awash in oceans of water, astronomers said, based on the distance of the planets from the dwarf star.

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Artist’s conception of surface conditions on one or more of the seven exoplanets

The newly discovered solar system resembles a scaled-down version of our own. The star at its center, an ultra-cool dwarf called TRAPPIST-1, is less than a tenth the size of our sun and about a quarter as warm. Its planets circle tightly around it; the closest takes just a day and a half to complete an orbit and the most distant takes about 20 days.

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Size comparison of our Sun and TRAPPIST-1

If these planets orbited a larger, brighter star they would be fried to a crisp. But TRAPPIST-1 is so cool that all seven of the bodies are bathed in just the right amount of warmth to hold liquid water. And three of them receive the same amount of heat as Venus, Earth and Mars, putting them in “the habitable zone,” that Goldilocks region where it's thought life can thrive.

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All 7 exoplanets are in the habitable zone

The researchers call these worlds “Earthlike,” though it’s a generous term. The planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system do resemble Earth in terms of size, mass and the energy they receive from their star, but there's a lot that makes our planet livable besides being a warm rock. Further observation is required to determine the composition of the TRAPPIST-1 bodies, if they have atmospheres and if they hold water, methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide — the molecules that scientists consider “biosignatures,” or signs of life. A good job for the James Webb Space Telescope schedule to launch next year.

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James Webb Space Telescope

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Neuschwanstein Castle Is A Disney Inspiration Designed By A Mad King

Once upon a time (the 19th century, to be specific), in a kingdom far, far away (an alpine town in southern Germany), a ruler named "Mad" King Ludwig II designed a medieval-style château called Neuschwanstein Castle. He didn't do it for a strategic or defense purpose, though—he just did it for his own amusement. Nevertheless, it remains a real-life fairytale oasis to this day.

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Ludwig grew up down the street from his future fairytale abode in another German castle, Schloss Hohenschwangau.

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Schloss Hohenschwangau

He became king of Bavaria at just 19 years old. The young king spent the majority of his time wrapped up in Romantic literature and operas, especially the works of composer and fellow German Richard Wagner.

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Richard Wagner

Ludwig began building Neuschwanstein Castle in honor of Wagner in 1869. And, according to the castle's website, its third and fourth floors reflect Ludwig's love of Wagnerian operas and feature decor inspired by many of the composer's characters. The castle's name itself directly translates to "New Swan Castle," in honor of one of Wagner's characters, "the Swan Knight."

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The Swan Knight

Yes, the castle is whimsical and grandiose, but it was certainly an anachronism for the relatively modern style of the 19th century. For a frame of reference, the Neuschwanstein has automatic flushing toilets and a central heating system. It's only about as old as the Eiffel Tower. Ludwig commissioned the strange castle simply because he admired Romanticism and the Byzantine style. As for the castle's placement at the top of a hill? Also completely unnecessary. He didn't need to see approaching armies; he simply enjoyed the view.

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Built on a hilltop…

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… primarily for the view

The king also built himself a grotto, which was made into a private theater here he could watch Wagnerian operas. The grotto includes a fake waterfall, stage lights that change colors, and a wave machine. He often had someone row him around in a gondola during performances. Needless to say, Ludwig's eccentric interests and expensive taste landed him the nickname "Mad" King Ludwig. After sending the country into financial decline, a government commission declared Ludwig mentally unfit to serve as king of Bavaria in 1886.

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Ultimate Man Cave

While Ludwig's story doesn't have a happy ending, his castles did inspire a man who is known for crafting happy endings: Walt Disney. Sleeping Beauty's Castle was inspired by Ludwig's Neuschwanstein, as was Cinderella's Castle. As the web site, Today I Found Out, states, the Bavarian castle's "dainty turrets and romantic views," as well as its "cylindrical towers" and Romanesque style made it the perfect architectural model for both Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty.

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Sleeping Beeauty’s Castle

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Cinderella’s Castle

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Post Posted: Mar 23, 2017 8:26 am 
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Gardens By The Bay, Singapore's Sustainable 'Superpark'

Singapore's government is on a mission to transform their island nation into a "city in a garden." Sounds pretty dreamy, right? Their National Parks Board moved this vision right along by creating a man-made mechanical forest inside their 250-acre landscaping project, Gardens by the Bay. It's a breathtaking, solar-powered urban oasis.

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Gardens by the Bay opened in 2012 in the Marina Bay area of Singapore's south side. The national garden is comprised of three distinctive waterfront gardens: Bay South, Bay East, and Bay Central, which are maintained by an in-house team of landscape designers, horticulturists, arborists, engineers, and other plant specialists. Their team aims to both entertain visitors and educate them about sustainable development and conservation. Also, to wow everyone with their supertrees (I presume).

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So, what's so special about these supertrees? We're glad you asked. These manmade structures tower at over 164 feet (50 meters), and, according to CNN, they "act as vertical gardens, generating solar power, acting as air venting ducts for nearby conservatories, and collecting rainwater." They also absorb and disperse heat, provide shelter, and eleven of the supertrees are fitted with solar photovoltaic systems that convert sunlight into energy. Did we mention that they're pretty? The artificial trees are covered with tropical flowers and climbing ferns. To see them up close, you can take a stroll across their connecting bridges, called "skywalks."

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Skywalk

Your trip to the Gardens won't be complete without visiting their two green conservatories, the Cloud Forest and Flower Dome. These climate-controlled biomes were inspired by the shape of an orchid flower, and they're the size of four football fields (housing 220,000 plants). Don't forget to bring your camera.

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Cloud Forest

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Flower Dome

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Post Posted: Mar 24, 2017 8:55 am 
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Why Is New Orleans Sinking And How Much Land In New Orleans Is Lost To Water Each Year?

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New Orleans is sinking, and some scientists are predicting that the city could be underwater within a century.

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Today more than two-thirds of the city is already about 8 feet (2.4 m) below sea level.

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This sinking, or subsidence, is happening because the city of New Orleans was built on the soft silt of the Mississippi Delta.

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To make matters worse, the surrounding marshlands and low-lying barrier islands that have protected the city from hurricane damage in the past are also sinking.

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And if predictions about global warming and rising sea levels come to pass, the loss of land to the sea will take place even sooner.

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Each year 25 square miles (65 sq km) of land in New Orleans are lost to the water.

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Geologists are looking at possible solutions. One is to build a 25-foot (7.6-m)-high wall across the southern part of the city. And there are other solutions.

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