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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 13, 2018 7:32 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 13, 2018 7:49 am 
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What Was The Manhattan Project?

Enrico Fermi’s discovery of man made nuclear fission had two implications.

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Enrico Fermi

1. If the reaction could be controlled, it would be a new source of tremendous amounts of power to produce electricity.

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2. Sustained fission could also produce the most destructive weapons ever made.


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But the nuclear power plants would have to wait; World War II had just started and Nazi Germany was trying to conquer the world.

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Many great scientists were escaping from Germany to avoid persecution. Einstein had escaped to the United States in 1933.

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Albert Einstein and wife Elsa escape Germany

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Project Paperclip

In 1938, the, Austrian physicist Lise Meitner escaped from Germany into Sweden and brought troubling news with her: two German physicists, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, were working on atomic fission. It was only a matter of time before they succeeded.

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Lise Meitner

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With this news, the United States decided to set up research into an atomic bomb. The top-secret project was called the Manhattan Project even though the research took place in Chicago, and Fermi was named to lead the research team.

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Research centered on whether the reaction could be controlled.

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If it could, a bomb could be built. Fermi and his team needed to resolve one problem before conducting an experiment. They wanted something even more efficient than water to slow down the neutrons. Water absorbed some neutrons in the process, and they needed every possible neutron for the reaction. Fermi decided that graphite would slow down the neutrons without much absorption.

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In December, 1942, they were ready. The historic experiment was actually quite simple. A huge atomic pile had been constructed consisting of 6 tons of uranium metal and 58 tons of uranium oxide. Four hundred tons of graphite bricks were placed around the uranium, and Fermi’s neutron gun was aimed at the pile.

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To control the reaction, a few cadmium rods were inserted into the structure. These rods would absorb neutrons as long as they were within the pile. Geiger counters stood nearby to measure the reaction.

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Fermi turned on his gun and gave the order for the cadmium rods to be removed. The final rod was removed very slowly. As it was removed, the Geiger counters measured more and more radiation. The instruments then showed that a chain reaction was under way, atomic fission could be controlled.

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Three years later, an atomic bomb was dropped on Japan (Germany had already been defeated) and World War II was won.

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Way More In Depth!

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 14, 2018 7:24 am 
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Shiprock

Legends surround this jagged rock formation in the New Mexico desert. Rising high above the surrounding desert, the rock formation known as Shiprock has long been a point of fascination.

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This striking volcanic plume was formed around 30 million years ago, developing as a plug within the vent of an active volcano. Over time, the rest of the volcano eroded away, leaving the jagged outcrop all alone in a vast expanse of plain. At over 1500 feet, it’s the tallest structure for miles and miles.

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The structure is an epicenter of legend within the Navajo culture. Called Tsé Bitʼaʼí or “the rock with wings,” myth says that the Shiprock was a piece of land that became a bird, carrying the ancestral people of the Navajo on its back. At sundown, the enormous creature settled in its current desert location and promptly turned back to stone. The newly-arrived people settled on the rock’s peak, leaving only to collect food and water. However, one day the outcrop was unexpectedly struck by lightning, stranding members of the tribe among its shards. Since then, the rock has been forbidden to people, who may disturb the ghostly spirits of those left behind.

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Although the steep, perilous sides of the Shiprock were once considered a great prize among rockclimbers, human ascents have been expressly off-limits since 1970, in accordance with Navajo custom.

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It is southwest of the city of Shiprock, NM, and accessible by off-road vehicles only.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 15, 2018 7:34 am 
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Kilauea


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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 15, 2018 10:29 pm 
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re shiprock: i'd like to kno more about the ridges leading up to the rock. your wikipedia "in depth" link mentioned the dikes in the lower left quadrant of the picture 3rd from last (not sure how to copy/paste a posted pic), but not the running ridges. they are reminiscent of dinosaur ridge (the dakota ridges?) which is famous in golden, found north in boulder and south of golden as the hogbacks, and seen even more amazingly south of la veta. but the ridges in the picture are very specific, it seems. manmade? any geologists out there?


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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 16, 2018 6:54 am 
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I lived in Gallup NM long ago as a kid and my dad took us there for exploration. The ridges are left over paths of the lava from ancient times, probably fissures that feed the main volcanic core. Ship Rock is quite the site standing alone in the desert and makes for a great geological study. Dinosaur ridge is formed from an uplift of sandstone which was once the bottom of a huge lake/sea. So although they may look similar they are of different formation.


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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 16, 2018 7:25 am 
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mtnhsmama wrote:
re shiprock: i'd like to kno more about the ridges leading up to the rock. your wikipedia "in depth" link mentioned the dikes in the lower left quadrant of the picture 3rd from last (not sure how to copy/paste a posted pic), but not the running ridges. they are reminiscent of dinosaur ridge (the dakota ridges?) which is famous in golden, found north in boulder and south of golden as the hogbacks, and seen even more amazingly south of la veta. but the ridges in the picture are very specific, it seems. manmade? any geologists out there?


mtn;

This site calls them "dikes" and addresses them, albeit briefly. It does, however, provide some links that might yield more info. I didn't research any of them, but who knows.

Henry

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 16, 2018 7:28 am 
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What Is Written On The Dead Sea Scrolls?

In 1947, an Arab boy lost a goat in the cliffs near the Dead Sea.

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While searching for the animal, he found a hole in the cliffs. The hole led into a cave, and in the cave were dozens of pottery jars. Thinking that the cave was haunted, the boy ran away.

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Later, a man returned with the boy and found more than 40 jars inside the cave, many of them broken. The jars contained no treasure in the ordinary sense, but dozens of leather and papyrus scrolls bearing ancient writing. Some of these scrolls were brought to experts, who declared that the scrolls contained copies of some books of the Old Testament.

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These scrolls had been hidden by a sect of Jews called Essenes. Sometime before the Christian era began, the Essenes retired to the desert and built a monastery there. Then in the year 68, when a Roman army entered the region, the Essenes fled, leaving their library of biblical scrolls hidden in a cave, where they remained unseen for almost 19 centuries!

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These ancient writings, called the Dead Sea Scrolls, were probably written as early as 250 B.C. They are more than 1,000 years older than any other copy of Old Testament books!

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 17, 2018 7:51 am 
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This Secret Airline Flies Nonstop To Area 51 Every Day

If you're anywhere near Area 51, you shouldn't be peering into the sky searching for UFOs. Nah, don't waste your time with that hullabaloo. Instead, look for a flying object you might actually have a good chance at spotting: a Janet jet. Let me introduce you to the airline that flies nonstop to the shadowy compound every single day.

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Area 51, more formally known as "Detachment 3, Air Force Flight Test Center," is a highly classified government location in southern Nevada that, according to files released by the FBI, dates back to 1955.

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The reason you're familiar with it is that many say that after a UFO crashed nearby in Roswell, New Mexico, it was the secret site of alien research (and maybe still is). That wild theory aside, the U.S. government acknowledged it's a real place in 2013 — although not as a facility for E.T. testing, but as a facility for the government's spy-plane program.

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Multiple times a day, a small fleet of 737s fly in and out of a restricted terminal (the "Gold Coast") of the McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas.

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These planes, which only display a registration number and a single red stripe on a white fuselage, are known as "Janet" jets. The airline isn't named "Janet," nor are the planes actually called "Janet." Rather, some aviation nerds once put the pieces together that "Janet" is the callsign given to these jets when they're flying in civilian airspace. Once Janet enters special use airspace, however, the jets change frequencies and get entirely different names. This is, as Jalopnik.com describes, the "most restricted airspace on Earth," after all.

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”Gold Coast” terminal

There are six Janet jets that you can see taking off and landing in McCarran's "Gold Coast" terminal (it's situated right next to some parking lots), but you'll likely never be in one. The planes set off for many of the sites inside the secretive Nellis Air Force Range, which includes the Nevada National Security Site, previously known as the Nevada Test Site. Smack-dab in the middle of that patch of land is Area 51. It's here that the U.S. has tested more than 900 nuclear weapons (you can see craters in photos as evidence). Also within this area are a slew of government facilities in some way related to testing secret advanced aircraft and providing air combat training.

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Craters

And that's about as much as anyone can really know. If you're an aviation enthusiast looking for work, however, maybe you could get aboard one of these mysterious jets one day. In January 2018, there was a job posting for a flight attendant aboard a Janet jet. How could you not be intrigued with requirements like this?: "must be level-headed and clear thinking while handling unusual incidents and situations (severe weather conditions, including turbulence, delays due to weather or mechanicals, hijackings or bomb threats)."There's just one more important prereq for the job: "Active Top Secret Clearance Highly Desired."

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Sorry for the fuzzy image … It’s classified, I guess

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 18, 2018 12:18 am 
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thx for the link, henry! the description is very like that of the hogback. i'll retry the links in the article when i'm bak on my more modern laptop - this one provides an endless (deadend) loop!


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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 18, 2018 7:29 am 
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Vulcan Point: An Island Within A Lake On A Volcano Within A Lake On An Island

Ever played with Russian nesting dolls? Well, picture the beloved dolls as a landscape, and you've got Vulcan Point. It's a Philippine island within a lake, which is in a volcano, which sits in another lake, all on another island.

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Let's back up a second and make a bit more sense of this. First, there's Luzon, the largest and most populated island of the Philippines. Luzon is home to a large lake called Lake Taal, which at its center sits Taal Volcano. Yes, there's a volcano within a lake and it's been active for almost three decades.

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At the very top of Taal Volcano is a caldera, a basin that was carved out thousands of years ago and filled with so much water that today it's one of the largest crater lakes in the world. If that isn't mind-boggling enough, at the very center of this crater lake is the final piece of this geological nesting doll — a teeny tiny island and volcanic cone called Vulcan Point.

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But how does such a perplexing geological feature come to be? It all begins with Taal Volcano. This active volcano just 34 miles (55 kilometers) south of Manila, Philippines is considered one of the world's most dangerous volcanos. It has erupted 30 times and killed more than 5,000 people. After one major eruption, the mouth of Taal collapsed, forming a crater that filled with water over time. This became Lake Taal, the lake on which Vulcan Point sits. In other words:

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Despite Taal Volcano's dubious reputation, dozens of brave tourists climb it daily. Perhaps catching a glimpse of Vulcan Point, the island in a lake on a volcano in a lake on an island, makes it worth the risk. Are you as impressed with Mother Nature as I am?

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: May 19, 2018 7:36 am 
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This Man Was Literally Raised By Wolves

It's not just Mowgli — the trope of the human child raised by wild animals is as old as literature itself. Even one of the two main characters in "The Epic of Gilgamesh," one of the earliest surviving works of literature, grew up among wild cattle and gazelles. But why is that striking image so prevalent in our fiction? Maybe because it's not so fictional after all. Just ask Marcos Rodríguez Pantoja and his canine adoptive parents.

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Marcos Rodríguez Pantoja's life changed forever one day in 1965. That was the day he was torn from his home and forced to live among strange and dangerous animals: human beings. Marcos was 19 years old, but he'd been living in a cave near the Sierra Morena mountains in Spain with a pack of wolves for the past 12 years. As you can probably imagine, it wasn't good luck that led him to those circumstances. Marcos' mother died when he was a very young boy, and when he was about 6 or 7, his father sold him to an aging goat herder. The old man died shortly afterward, and Marcos decided to seek shelter in the mountains instead of returning to his abusive blood relatives.

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The story of Marcos' time in the wilderness is nothing short of remarkable. The goat herder had taught him how to make traps to catch rabbits and partridges, which helped keep him alive in the early days. He also looked to animals for guidance. "Whatever they ate, I ate," he told the BBC in 2013, "The wild boars ate tubers buried under the soil. They found them because they smelled them. When they were digging the soil looking for them, I threw a stone at them — they would run away and then I would steal the tubers."

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Soon he found his way to the cave that would eventually become his home. He was delighted to find a litter of wolf puppies there, which he says he played with until he fell asleep. But once their mother came home, she nearly chased him off. By the end of the day, however, she was willing to share a portion of her kill with her strange new cub. He had found a new family. In fact, like Mowgli, he became a part of an entire community of animals, including a snake he befriended with milk, and wild goats he learned to get milk from. And that's how he lived until the Guardia Civil (civil guard) discovered him and removed him by force to the village of Fuencaliente.

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Imagine you're 19, and you've just been served your first bowl of soup ever. How would you respond? Marcos did what seemed natural — he cupped his hands, dipped them in, then shattered the bowl when he scalded his skin. Nobody had warned him of the danger the hot liquid presented, and it set the tone for much of his life in human society. Now in his 70s, Marcos has found his own community of human beings, but he still finds himself bewildered and disoriented by the sights and sounds of the city. Even worse, he's often been taken advantage of by unscrupulous types. Perhaps it's no surprise that he told the Spanish newspaper El Pais that he'd found human life to be a disappointment. Still, it's not entirely bad. Now that he is an older man, he's found a place fighting for the planet with environmental groups like Amig@s de Arbores, and in the classroom where he tells children about his unbelievable life story.

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