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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 15, 2018 7:36 am 
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mtnhsmama wrote:
O M G!!!

thx so much henry! i just hafta respond to ur post on freddie mercury. there was sumpn vaguely familiar about the kid, and when i saw one life-changing decision was changing his name - my mouth shot open and my hand went over my mouth! i can't believe it's been that long, but his death ranked up there w/ me like prince's death. so sorrowful. both were absolutely intelligent, very private, and fantastically talented! thanks for such a wonderful background on him - who knew!! farrokh bulsara. i'll not forget it!


Had he lived, he'd be 72 years old this September. I know because I was born that same year.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 15, 2018 7:49 am 
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The U.S. Government Released A Study On Warp Drive

Conspiracy theorists like to say that the government is in contact with extraterrestrials, knows all about their advanced technology, and is just hiding it from the public.

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In fact, the U.S. government does have an official history of studying UFOs and attempting to develop the kind of technology mostly relegated to science fiction — and a lot of it has been declassified. The most recent document to surface? A 2010 study entitled "Warp Drive, Dark Energy, and the Manipulation of Extra Dimensions." Yes, the Department of Defense has been studying warp drive. But does that mean the technology is actually possible?

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Ever since Albert Einstein rained on everyone's parade by proving that nothing can travel faster than light, futurists have been trying to come up with ways around the universe's cosmic speed limit. After all, even our closest stellar neighbor would take more than four years to reach if we could travel at the speed of light — to reach distant galaxies in a practical amount of time, we'll have to go faster.

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Many of the most popular methods involve using Einstein's principles to our advantage: the dimensions of space and time are bound together into spacetime, which can curve and bend in the presence of certain physical forces. Just as you can gather the fabric of a dress to make the waistline smaller, it might be possible to "gather" the fabric of the universe to shorten the distance between two points. That could theoretically get us across the universe in a matter of days, rather than eons.

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Wormholes are theoretical shortcuts through spacetime that might naturally occur, if we can find them; warp drive is one way we might wrinkle spacetime ourselves. It turns out that the military has been trying to figure out the latter.

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The U.S. Department of Defense began the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program in 2007, according to the New York Times. This $22 million program was aimed at investigating reports of UFOs, which some were concerned could be next-generation technology developed by the Chinese or Russian government. It only makes sense, then, that program officials would study all the next-generation technology they could.

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That's where the warp drive study comes in. Though it's dated April 2, 2010, the document was just recently released by the Defense Intelligence Agency and covered by Dave Mosher of Business Insider. Two physicists, Richard K. Obousy, Ph.D., now the director of spaceflight company Icarus Interstellar; and Eric W. Davis, Ph.D., an independent researcher; produced a 34-page report laying out just how we might manage to produce warp drive. As far-out as it might seem, the paper uses a variety of established physics to get to its end goal — but how applicable they are is definitely in question.

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Their warp drive would work using dark energy, a form of energy that, while mysterious in nature, is believed to make up roughly 69-to-70 percent of the universe. It's what scientists believe is fueling the expansion of the universe, thanks to its ability to generate negative pressure. Although we have yet to explain what dark energy is or where it comes from, this pair of researchers figure it's thanks to a combination of energy from the vacuum of space in our own dimension, plus that of a higher dimension. Just go with it.

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The amount of vacuum energy in that higher dimension is "intimately related" to its size, say the researchers. Therefore, all you need to do is create a technology that can change the size of that higher dimension, and then you could control dark energy. Since dark energy controls the expansion of the universe, control over dark energy would be control over spacetime itself. If you made the region of spacetime in front of a starship contract while you made the region behind it expand, you could make the ship effectively travel faster than the speed of light without ever actually doing so.

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Last edited by Henry on Jun 15, 2018 9:46 am, edited 1 time in total.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 15, 2018 8:19 am 
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The earth is closer to the sun than it is to mars? I had no idea.


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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 15, 2018 9:47 am 
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285survivor wrote:
The earth is closer to the sun than it is to mars? I had no idea.


Good eye ... thanks.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 16, 2018 7:33 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 17, 2018 7:36 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 17, 2018 7:44 am 
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Where Do Computer Viruses Come From And How Does A Hacker Spread A Computer Virus?

A computer virus is a piece of written code that copies itself, spreads itself around, and tells a computer what to do.

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It might, for example, infect all the IBM-compatible computers it can, and on the next Friday the 13th, find all the decimal points in the data where it is and move them one digit to the right. Or it might simply destroy all the data and write “Gotcha” on the screen.

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Human viruses are spread by all sorts of contact. Anyone who works in an open office knows how fast a cold can spread, with everyone sneezing on each other, sharing telephones, shaking hands. Computers obviously don’t sneeze. But they have plenty of chances to come in contact with each other, and every contact is a chance to transmit a computer virus.

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Virus codes can be added to the lines of written code that make up computer programs, hidden among thousands of lines of commands that tell the computer what to do, and when.

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A computer hacker, one of those highly capable computer programmers who works day and night at his keyboard, could write a virus into a “bootleg” program before giving a copy of the disk to a colleague. Once the disk is inserted into a healthy computer, the virus copies itself onto other program files on the main computer and even into the computer’s operating system, its brain.

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The next time anyone inserts a disk into the infected computer to play a computer game, the new disk will be infected too. Or if the computer sends some program by modem, the virus goes along. And when the computer taps into a network, the virus sends itself, too. Traveling by network, a virus can infect hundreds of thousands of computers in just a few hours. Most viruses are started by one person who’s up to no good, but very few are spread intentionally.

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In 1988, a Cornell University computer science graduate student created a virus (known today as a “worm”) and released it into two networks that scientists use for exchanging information.

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The student meant only to show off his skills by gaining access to hundreds of research facilities’ computers. But the virus went wild, replicating itself faster than the student ever intended and crippling computers all over the United States. The Computer Virus Industry Association estimated that $98 million was spent to clean up the damages left in its path.

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Expert hackers have proven themselves capable of finding access to corporate and federal government computers and leaving virus code behind. Sometimes this is done through “trapdoors,” the secret ways into a system that avoid the usual security measures like passwords.

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In 1988 the Chaos Computer Club of West Germany gained access to NASA’s computer and maintained access for five months before being discovered. Its members claim to have left behind viruses that will activate in the future, although NASA’s own computer experts deny this.

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Virus guards, codes written by the good guys, have helped curb the spread of viruses. They can detect typical virus language (and some can detect particular, known viruses) before the infected program runs on a computer.

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Virus detection software

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 18, 2018 5:51 am 
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Mammoths were alive when the Great Pyramid was being built.
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Post Posted: Jun 18, 2018 7:40 am 
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Who Was Rafael Trujillo And When Did “El Jefe’s” Reign Of The Dominican Republic End?

Known as El Jefe, or “the Chief,” Rafael Trujillo was the dictator of the Dominican Republic from 1930 to 1961.

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Rafael “El Jefe” Trujillo

He wasn’t always president, but he controlled whoever was president. He ruled like a gangster, outlawing opposition parties, torturing and killing dissidents, growing rich on public money.

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He expanded the economy and modernized the country, but ordinary citizens did not benefit much: unemployment and poverty were rampant.

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In a dispute with Haiti, Trujillo ordered the massacre of ten thousand Haitians.

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Trujillo was shot to death in his car by assassins in 1961.

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Post Posted: Jun 19, 2018 7:27 am 
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Where Did The Banana Come From?

The banana has been called the most ancient fruit on earth, for it was being enjoyed by man long before recorded history began.

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The banana probably first grew in Malaysia and Thailand in Southeast Asia, and was spread by natives to China and India at a very early date. Alexander the Great and his soldiers, who conquered parts of India in the 4th century B.C., were probably the first Europeans to sample the fruit.

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In 1516, a priest brought the first banana plants to the New World, planting them on a Caribbean island.

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The banana grew so well there that it was soon planted all over the tropical regions of Central and South America.

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But bananas remained rare and expensive in the United States until around 1900, when traders found better ways to transport fresh bananas to this country.

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Early banana importers and distributors

Today, the banana is America’s most popular fresh fruit. Americans eat more apples and oranges than they do bananas, but many of these apples and oranges go into making juices and prepared foods. Bananas are almost always eaten fresh. Each year, Americans enjoy about 12 billion bananas, about 19 pounds per person.

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When Puritan settlers in America first received a shipment of bananas, they boiled them, skin and all.

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Post Posted: Jun 20, 2018 7:23 am 
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What Is Dry Ice Made Of And Why Does Dry Ice Produce Smoke?

The smoke from dry ice isn’t smoke; it’s fog. Although dry ice is pure carbon dioxide, the fog itself is not carbon dioxide, as some people think. Carbon dioxide gas is invisible. The cloud of fog surrounding the dry ice is pure water. It has been condensed out of the air’s natural humidity by the dry ice’s low temperature.

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Dry ice is carbon dioxide in the solid form, just as regular ice is water in the solid form. Water freezes to a solid at 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius), while carbon dioxide doesn’t become solid until 109 degrees below zero Fahrenheit (-78.5 degrees Celsius). Thus, frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice) is much colder than frozen water.

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Regular ice is wet because as it melts it becomes liquid water. Dry ice is dry because it doesn’t melt. It changes directly into a gas without turning into a liquid first. Carbon dioxide simply cannot exist as a liquid at ordinary atmospheric pressure. When it finds itself in the even more unnatural solid form as dry ice, it does its best to revert directly to a gas.

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Water has three states

Whereas…

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Carbon Dioxide has only two at normal atmospheric pressure

However, things change when CO2 is under pressure. CO2 fire extinguishers are nothing but tanks of liquid carbon dioxide with a squeeze valve. When you release some of the pressure by squeezing the trigger, carbon dioxide comes rushing out through the funnel. It comes out as a blast of very cold gas, mixed with a “snow” of solid carbon dioxide. If you could collect enough of this snow before it evaporates and squeeze it into a “snowball,” you’d have a chunk of dry ice. On a larger scale, that’s exactly how they make dry ice from liquid carbon dioxide.

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The fire extinguisher works in two ways: The coldness can lower the temperature below the fuel’s ignition point, while the carbon dioxide smothers the fire because it’s a heavy gas that pushes away the oxygen.

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Dry ice is used on movie sets to make fog. It is real fog because it consists of microscopic droplets of water suspended in the air. But you can always tell a fog forgery, because the water is very cold from the dry ice and the fog therefore lies on the ground like a blanket-unless it is blown around by an off-camera fan. Real, weather-generated fog, on the other hand, hangs fairly motionlessly in the air.

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Movies also use dry ice to simulate caldrons of boiling water. Just throw some dry ice into the water, and as the solid carbon dioxide changes to gaseous carbon dioxide, the gas rises through the water as fog-filled bubbles that break at the surface and are supposed to look like steam. If you look closely, though, you can always tell that it’s fake. The microscopic droplets in fog reflect light and look white, but steam is made of bigger droplets of water that are almost transparent. Moreover, steam goes straight up because heat rises, while the cold dry-ice fog hangs low over the caldron.

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Water steam

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Dry ice

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Jun 21, 2018 7:32 am 
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Where Is Timbuktu Located And How Did Timbuktu Get Its Name?

Timbuktu does indeed exist, and is the capital city of Mali, a country on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert in Africa.

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The word Timbuktu itself means “faraway place” in several African languages. It became an important trade center around 1300 for items such as gold, ivory, and slaves.

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Five hundred years ago, Timbuktu was home to 1 million people, but today only about 20,000 live there. Timbuktu was an intellectual and spiritual capital for the propagation of Islam throughout Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Many scholars believe that Timbuktu had one of the first universities in the world, and local collections still boast an impressive collection of ancient Greek texts from that era.

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1st African University

Mali was a French colony until 1960.

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