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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Aug 28, 2019 8:10 am 
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Buttons; Left Side Or Right Side?

Buttons have been used since ancient times to fasten or decorate clothing. Archeologists have unearthed buttons dating back to times earlier than written history.

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But in the 1200s, when fitted clothes took the place of loose robes tied by string or fastened by pins, buttons became popular. At that time, both men and women had buttons sewn on the left side of their garments, the same side as women do today.

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Then, during the Middle Ages, a change occurred. Men needed to unbutton their coats quickly to draw their swords, which hung on their left side. Since the sword was drawn with the right hand, it took a great deal of time for that same right hand to first undo the buttons.

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Therefore, men’s buttons were changed to the right side so that a swordsman could use his left hand to unbutton his coat and immediately draw his sword with his right hand.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Aug 29, 2019 7:59 am 
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GPS

A global positioning system (GPS) receiver is a pretty cool little gadget.

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It’s somewhat based on the navigational systems of old in which skilled sailors using compasses, astrolabes, and sextants could tell where they were (give or take a hundred miles) by combining the data of the stars, sun, and moon positions.

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Of course, there were problems. It took a lot of math skills, charts, and you couldn’t see the stars except on a clear night; and the precision left a lot to be desired. In other words … a lot of complexities.

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A GPS receiver bypasses all of the problems by using satellites, radio waves, and sophisticated electronics.

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The United States uses twenty-four orbiting satellites to ensure that wherever you are in the world, there are at least four satellites your GPS receiver can pick up (three satellites is the bare minimum needed to locate your latitude and longitude; if you also want to know your altitude, you need a fourth one as well).

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Each satellite broadcasts an identifying signal at the speed of light, which includes time information that allows your GPS to figure out how long it took the signal to arrive, which then allows your GPS to figure out how far away each satellite is.

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By comparing these distances from several satellites, the GPS can figure out your exact location, to within a few feet.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Aug 30, 2019 7:45 am 
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*** Topic revisit ***


James Webb Telescope (JWST) Back On Track

NASA's next big space observatory has finally come together.

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Engineers have joined both halves of the $9.7 billion James Webb Space Telescope, which is scheduled to launch in March 2021, NASA officials announced a few days ago (Aug. 28).

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Ariane 5 scheduled for 2021 launch of JWST

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Both halves now united

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"The assembly of the telescope and its scientific instruments, sunshield and the spacecraft into one observatory represents an incredible achievement by the entire Webb team," Webb project manager Bill Ochs, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, said in a statement.

"This milestone symbolizes the efforts of thousands of dedicated individuals for over more than 20 years across NASA, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, Northrop Grumman and the rest of our industrial and academic partners," Ochs added.


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The successor to the Hubble observatory has reached a key milestone in its construction. All the elements that make up the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) have been brought together for the first time.

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It sets the stage for some critical tests that will hopefully lead to a launch to orbit sometime in 2021.
JWST will use a colossal mirror and state-of-the-art instruments to try to see the glow from the very first stars to shine in the Universe.

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It will also have the power to resolve the atmospheres of many of the new planets now being discovered beyond our Solar System, and to analyze their atmospheres for the potential for life.

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Artist’s conception

Webb often gets called the replacement for Hubble, but it’s really a successor. After all, its science goals were motivated by results from Hubble. Hubble's science pushed us to look to longer wavelengths to "go beyond" what Hubble has already done. In particular, more distant objects are more highly redshifted, and their light is pushed from the UV and optical into the near-infrared. Thus observations of these distant objects (like the first galaxies formed in the Universe, for example) requires an infrared telescope.

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This is the other reason that Webb is not a replacement for Hubble; its capabilities are not identical. Webb will primarily look at the Universe in the infrared, while Hubble studies it primarily at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths (though it has some infrared capability). Webb also has a much bigger mirror than Hubble. This larger light collecting area means that Webb can peer farther back into time than Hubble is capable of doing.

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Star formations more easily seen in infrared

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Post Posted: Aug 31, 2019 8:10 am 
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Disneyland’s Club 33

Whether you go to Orlando, Shanghai, Paris, or Anaheim, it's no question that a visit to Disney is an unforgettable experience. There's one experience, though, that many of even the most die-hard fanatics still have yet to enjoy: Disneyland's Club 33, where members get the ultimate treatment and a dining experience like no other. There's only one thing — it'll cost you $25,000 just to join.

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Initiation Fee

Built in 1967 in Anaheim, CA, this members-only restaurant and bar was originally designed by Walt Disney and his wife as a secret place to entertain their most high-profile guests. Walt passed away five months short of its completion, but his vision for the club lived on. Today, Club 33 functions as an ultra-exclusive five-star dining experience with a hefty price tag — initiation is about the cost of a car ($25,000), while annual fees are anywhere from $12,000 to $30,000 a year.

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Annual Fee

While the existence of Club 33 is no longer a secret today, much of what's behind its doors is. As keeping this place mysterious is all part of the allure, getting a glimpse of what goes on inside those walls has always been quite tricky, however, more and more has been learned about Disneyland's most prestigious dining club.

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Located in the center of Disneyland's New Orleans Square, there's a good chance you've walked past the entrance to Club 33 without even knowing it — an inconspicuous door numbered 33 where members touch their passes for exclusive entry. Once past the door, members get a warm welcome at reception and ascend a blue staircase to Le Salon Nouveau and Le Grand Salon: the club's dining rooms. You better show up hungry (and thirsty), because Club 33 serves an impressive five- to six-course tasting menu of dishes like beef tartare, rack of lamb, and lobster paella while offering the only alcoholic beverages in the entire park. Be sure to make your reservation in advance, though — several months in advance, according to insiders.

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But there's still the million-dollar (or $25,000) question. How in the name of Mickey do you get in?! If you're looking for membership, you'll need to be on the rumored 14-year waitlist. If you're just looking for a reservation, you'd better know someone who can invite you as his or her guest. If either of these options doesn't work for you, there's always Craigslist. Members have been known to anonymously list reservations for sale, but proceed with caution: Disney takes membership abuse very seriously. Whatever you choose to do, start saving up now. Otherwise, it's another meal at Goofy's Kitchen with the rest of us.

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Goofy’s Kitchen

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Sep 1, 2019 7:50 am 
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Periscopes

A periscope is built and works much like a telescope, with a long tube containing a mirror at each end.

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The mirrors are fitted into the tube so that they are parallel to each other at a 45° angle to the axis, or imaginary long center line, of the tube. They are relatively easy to build, and the Internet has numerous sites that can help you make your own home-made model.

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More complicated periscopes have extra lenses added to enlarge the image. Submarine periscopes contain this more complicated arrangement. They have reflecting prisms at the top and bottom of the tube, with two telescopes and several lenses between the two ends, and an eyepiece at the viewing end. A submarine periscope also has a thick, rigid, waterproof casing and can stand the pressure of great depths of water.

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In addition to submarines, tanks also use periscopes in wartime to navigate or look for enemy targets. Both of these vehicles have periscopes which can be raised or lowered, as well as turned around in a 360° circle.

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Tank driver’s periscope view

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Sep 2, 2019 8:21 am 
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Post Posted: Sep 2, 2019 8:25 am 
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Naomi Uemura

A Japanese explorer named Naomi Uemura succeeded in doing the impossible. On March 6, 1978, he set out alone with seventeen sled dogs on an eight-week trip that ended in his victory at the North Pole.

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Naomi Uemura

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In temperatures of 49 degrees below zero, he fought his way across 600 miles of Arctic ice to reach his goal. He was attacked by a polar bear twice. The second time he had to shoot the bear.

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After several other close calls on his life, he achieved his record on April 29, 1978, the first man ever to reach the North Pole alone. Five times during the eight-week journey, he was supplied with food and fresh dogs by helicopter.

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His arrival at the North Pole was “seen ” by a satellite, which picked up a signal from a transmitter he carried on his sled. If you think that crossing the Arctic ice is like walking across a frozen pond, guess again. The surface of the Arctic ice is like an ocean, with huge frozen waves. Uemura had to break a path through the “waves” with a crowbar so his sled and dogs could get through.

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Sadly, he disappeared while attempting to climb Denali (Mt. McKinley) in the winter.

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Post Posted: Sep 3, 2019 8:01 am 
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Louisiana Purchase

Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Oklahoma were wholly contained in the Louisiana Purchase. In addition, most of the land in Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and Minnesota was part of the deal.

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The French territory of Louisiana stretched northwest from the present state of Louisiana all the way to the Canadian border. The Louisiana Purchase added 828,000 square miles (2.1 million sq km) to the United States in 1803, doubling its size.

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The $15 million paid back then for Louisiana is the equivalent of just under $171 million dollars in today’s money—a steal even now.

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Sep 3, 2019 1:38 pm 
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I responded to this post in the study so as not to disrupt Henry's fine thread.
https://pinecam.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=51&t=232390


Henry wrote:
The Amazon Rainforest

As most of you know, the Amazon region in South America has been in the news for the last few days due to the outbreak of wildfires in this once picturesque and idyllic area. It is both scary and of immediate concern how much the goings-on in the Amazon affect us here so far away. Whether it’s the air we breath, the medicines we take, or the rains we get … it’s scary. Here are some facts about the Amazon, along with unrelated images of the ongoing fires that underscore my fears:

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1. The Amazon is the world's biggest rainforest, larger than the next two largest rainforests — in the Congo Basin and Indonesia — combined.

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2. At 6.9 million square kilometers (2.72 million square miles), the Amazon Basin is roughly the size of the forty-eight contiguous United States and covers some 40 percent of the South American continent.

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3. The Amazon River is by far the world's largest river by volume. It has over 1,100 tributaries, 17 of which are longer than 1000 miles. The Amazon delivers 55 million gallons of water into the Atlantic ocean every second.

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4. The Amazon River once flowed west-ward instead of east-ward as it does today. The rise of the Andes caused it to flow into the Atlantic Ocean.

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5. The Amazon is estimated to have 16,000 tree species and 390 billion individual trees.

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6. Nearly two-thirds of the Amazon rainforest is found in Brazil.

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7. The Amazon is thought to have 2.5 million species of insects. More than half the species in the Amazon rainforest are thought to live in the canopy.

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8. 25% of all western pharmaceuticals come from rainforest based ingredients, yet less than 1% of the trees and plants in the Amazon have ever been tested by scientists.

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9. The Amazon influences rainfall patterns as far away as the United States.

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10. Cattle ranching accounts for roughly 70 percent of deforestation in the Amazon.

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11. This area of immense natural beauty is sometimes referred to as ‘the lungs of the Earth’. This is because the rich vegetation takes carbon dioxide out of the air, and releases oxygen back in. In fact, more than 20% of the world’s oxygen is produced by the Amazon.

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Post Posted: Sep 4, 2019 8:23 am 
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Who Invented Ivory Soap?

In 1881, a worker at Procter and Gamble forgot to turn off the machine that whipped a little air into the soap mixture.

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He ran the “ruined” batch through production and packaging anyway instead of pulling it.

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Consumers went wild. They loved the way the bar floated instead of sinking to the murky bottom of the bathtub.
Procter and Gamble decided to keep the method and make it a selling point.

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Why did they call it Ivory? Procter claims he took the name from a verse in the sermon he heard that Sunday.

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It was Psalms 45:8:

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“All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes,
and cassia, and out of the ivory palaces whereby they have
made thee glad.”


===============

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Making Artful Glass

Before humans learned the secret of glassmaking, nature was the world’s only glassmaker.

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Lightning striking sand melted it into long, thin tubes of glass, and volcanoes erupting melted rocks and sand into glass.

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Fulgurite

The earliest glass made by humans was probably a glaze on ceramic pottery made somewhere around 3000 B.C.

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Today, three inexpensive ingredients, sand, soda ash, and lime, are melted together to make glass. This is done in large furnaces at high temperatures until the mixture become a syrupy mass. When this syrup cools, it is glass.

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When glass is in a melted state, it can be shaped by many methods, but one of the most artful ones is blowing.

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Blowing is the oldest method of working with glass, dating back thousands of years. A ball of molten, or melted, glass is put on the end of a hollow iron pipe, and a worker blows gentle into the pipe (much like the way you blow soap bubbles) until the glass takes the shape and thinness the blower wants.

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During this process, the glass is constantly reheated to keep it soft and workable.

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And Viola!

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 Post subject: Re: Interesting Facts
Post Posted: Sep 5, 2019 8:42 am 
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It is an incredible experience to watch glass blowers in action. There used to be (hopefully still is) a place in the old part of Colorado Springs where you can watch. Those people are brave!

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